You may have heard the name porcelain ceramic or porcelain these days, and you must have wondered what porcelain ceramic is? In this article, we want to answer the important question of what this noisy ceramic is and how it is made. Before that, it's better to know more about its history.
Italian cow skin
Porcelain, like other similar products, is of Chinese origin and has its origins in China. But according to the same colonial principle that becomes a European product with a new name, porcelain ceramics have also become a European product. Porcelain is a European Chinese name in English and because of its resemblance to the surface of animal and human skin (smooth and smooth) from "porcelain" porcellana Old Italian (leather cow skin) taken.
The first European porcelain was made in the factory in the early 18th and late 17th centuries Meissen produced. Where it became one of the most famous Chinese-made brands in the world.
The Europeans produced many ceramics during the 17th century. The Italians invented "Chinese Turin". The British continued to do so in Chelsea, and the Spaniards began copying in southern cities. The most important step, however, was taken by two German scientists and merchants who, using clay and feldspar in the same Messinian, came up with a new composition that bore the closest resemblance to the Chinese example and even surpassed it in cases such as resistance.
It did not take long for the whole of Europe to start making porcelain similar to the porcelain of the Chinese Empire. However, the field of definition of porcelain was still wide and could not be related to a specific material and specific method of production.
The story of porcelain ceramics or Porcelain tile Also known as porcelain tiles, it started exactly where resistance in the product became important. In fact, the porcelain ceramics we are dealing with today are completely European products, especially German ones. The construction applications of porcelain ceramic tiles became apparent in Europe.
Although there was a history of using ceramics in China and building towers, the new approach was entirely industrial and in the form of mass production. Porcelain is much harder than traditional ceramic tiles and is usually chosen for its hardness despite its higher price. A feature discovered in Germany. New porcelain ceramic or porcelain tile is a combination of clay (special type), feld spot or granite, which is baked and compacted at a very high temperature in a kiln under high pressure.
Resistance and degree of wear of ceramic
The degree of wear of the tile can be graded from zero to five according to ISO 10545-7 (and ASTM C1027) test for surface abrasion resistance and can be used to determine its suitability in different conditions. Modern polished floor tiles are glazed in a large mold. This means that you can burn a tile and then polish it and see the shine again.
The superiority of porcelain tiles does not end here. This new product is resistant to any chemicals, acids and abrasions. Its water absorption is very low (less than 0.5%) and its main reason is its high density and less porosity than other tiles. This number is an extraordinary number compared to ordinary ceramics, porcelain and even more building stones.
Types of old porcelain ceramics
The strength and transparency of the porcelain ceramic product line compared to other types is mainly due to the vitrification and formation of Molite mineral at high temperatures. Although there are different definitions, this category of porcelain ceramics can be divided into 3 main categories:
- Hard paste
Hard paste porcelain was invented in China and used in Japan, and most porcelains are of the best quality. The first European porcelain was produced in the early 18th century at the Meissen factory. They consist of a dough consisting of kaolin and alabaster and are baked in wood ovens at a maximum temperature of 1400 ° C.
- Soft paste
Soft dough porcelain was first invented by European potters to reproduce porcelain using mixtures of clay and tubing. Soapstones and lime were included in these compounds. Because these initial formulations were subjected to high pyroplastic deformation, or to be dropped in the furnace at high temperatures, they were not economical to produce and were of poor quality. Formulations were later based on kaolin with quartz, feldspar, nepheline syenite, or other feldsparic rocks.
- Bone china
This type of porcelain was made in England in 1748 to compete with imported porcelain. Rumor has it that The English had read the letters of the Jesuit missionary and learned the secrets of making utensils. چین استخوان انگلیسی از دو قسمت خاکستر استخوان ، یک قسمت کائولن و یک قسمت سنگ چینی ساخته میشد، اگر چه دومی توسط فلدسپاتهایی از منابع غیر انگلیسی جایگزین شده است.